A liver abscess is a pus-filled mass inside the liver; occasionally, multiple cavities are seen. Common causes are abdominal infections such as appendicitis or diverticulitis due to haematogenous spread through the portal vein.
Computed tomography (CT with and without intravenous and/or oral contrast) and ultrasound are the imaging studies of choice.
Liver abscess is almost uniformly fatal if left untreated. Timely treatment reduces mortality to 5% to 30%
Wilson’s disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates intissues; this manifests as neurological or psychiatric symptoms and liver disease. It is treated with medication that reduces copper absorption or removes the excess copper from the body, but occasionally a liver transplant is required.
Wilson’s disease occurs in 1 to 4 per 100,000 people. It is named after Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson (1878–1937), the British neurologist who first described the condition in 1912.
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In the CT/CAT scan images below we discovered a 23.2mm meningioma at the right portion of the brain in a direct, wide contact with the cranial bone.
Meningiomas are a diverse set of tumors arising from the meninges, the membranous layers surrounding the central nervous system.
Meningiomas, arise from the arachnoid “cap” cells of the arachnoid villi in the meninges. These tumors are usually benign in nature; however, a small percentage are malignant. Many meningiomas are asymptomatic, producing no symptoms throughout a person’s life, and require no treatment other than periodic observation. Symptomatic meningiomas are typically treated with eitherradiosurgery or conventional surgery. Historical evidence of meningiomas has been found going back hundreds of years, with some successful surgeries for their removal beginning in the 1800s.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
PE most commonly results from deep vein thrombosis (a blood clot in the deep veins of the legs or pelvis) that breaks off and migrates to the lung, a process termed venous thromboembolism (VTE). A small proportion of cases are due to the embolization of air, fat, talc in drugs of intravenous drug abusers or amniotic fluid. The obstruction of the blood flow through the lungs and the resultant pressure on the right ventricle of the heart lead to the symptoms and signs of PE. The risk of PE is increased in various situations, such as cancer or prolonged bed rest.
Symptoms of pulmonary embolism include difficulty breathing, chest pain on inspiration, and palpitations. Clinical signs include low blood oxygen saturation and cyanosis, rapid breathing, and a rapid heart rate. Severe cases of PE can lead to collapse, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.
Diagnosis is based on these clinical findings in combination with laboratory tests (such as the D-dimer test) and imaging studies, usually CT pulmonary angiography. Treatment is typically with anticoagulant medication, including heparin and warfarin. Severe cases may require thrombolysis with drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or may require surgical intervention via pulmonary thrombectomy.